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  Know Bypass Surgery  
  The era of modren cardiac surgery was ushered in when on the 6th of May 1953, John Gibon of New York closed a hole in a patients heart with the help of a ingenious new machine he had devised. This machine was called the heart lung machine and its job was to take over the functions of the patients heart and lung while the surgeon stopped the heart and performed the operation. The techniques and technology of cardiac surgery have made tremendous progress since those early days. At BBC HEARTCARE CENTRE we practice the most modern techniques and offer surgery in the following categories.  
  1. Off Pump Coronary Bypass or Beating Heart Surgery.
  2. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)
  3. Heart Valve repair and replacement.
  4. Surgery for Congenital Hear disease.
  5. Vascular Surgery or Surgery of the blood vessels.
  6. 6. Chest and Vascular Trauma Surgery as part of the management of the poly trauma patient.
  Should you or a member of your family require Heart Surgery, you can have the peace of mind which comes from having chosen a state of the art centre with a highly experienced team of surgeons and anesthetists. Most patients who undergo Heart Surgery make an uneventful recovery and return gradually to a normal life style. We understand the apprehensions in the mind of a patient about to undergo Heart Surgery and our pre-operative management is designed specially to address these concerns and provides maximum comfort.  
  This operation is recommended to patients with multiple blocks in the minute arteries which supply oxygenated blood to the muscle of the heart. The surgeons takes blood vessels from the patients own body, most notably the internal mamary artery from the inside of the chest wall the radial artery from the forearm and the sphenous vein from the patients own body, from the leg and uses them to create new channels of blood flow to the heart muscle beyond the sites of block in the coronary arteries. Traditionally the operation is performed on the lung machine which take over the function of the heart and lungs temporarily. Before the commencement of surgery the patient is put to sleep by the administration of a general anesthetic, At the conclusion of surgery. The patient is separated from the Heart-Lung Machine and gradually allowed to wake-up after several hours. The results of this operation in routine patients are good.  
  This is a revolutionary new method of perfuming Bypass Surgery being applied only by a handful of top hospitals world wide. In principle this operation is similar to CABG and is offered to Patients with coronary artery disease. However it avoids the use of the Heart Lung Machine. The operation involves special techniques and is performed with the help of instruments called Stabilizers. Through out surgery, the heart continues to beat and pump blood, because the heart lung machine involves circulating blood. Synthetic tubing it can potentially produce serious side effects such as increased bleeding, decreased lung function, stroke or kidney failure. In beating heart surgery, the heart lung machine is not used and therefore, the these side effects are avoided. Beating Heart Surgery is a major for high risk patients such as these with decreased pump function of the heart lung machine. The recovery is most cases is faster and the patient can be sent home at least a day earlier compared to these undergoing conventional surgery.  
  At BBC Heart Care we perform Beating Heart surgery in 99% of bypass patients going by the principle that if it is good for high risk patients, it is even better for low risk patients.  
  Heart Valve surgery is offered to patients with narrowing or leakage of one or more heart valves. The operation involves the use of the Heart Lung Machine. If the Patients valve well preserved it can be repaired but if the deformity of value tissue is servere, the valve is replaced with a mechanical valve. We commonly select a mechanical valve made of pyrolyte carbon with two leaflets because of its superior flow characteristics. Most patients are sufficiently recovered by the seventh day after surgery to merit discharge from hospital. Patients with mechanical valve have to take an anticoagulant medication life long. It prevents blood from clothing on the valve but it also predisposes the patient to bleeding and so the patient has to guard against inadvertent injury. In addition, the valve can become infected from a focus of infection else where in the body such as a sore throat. Therefore these patients should consult their doctor in the event of minor illness or if they have to undergo surgery.  
  The results of valve surgery are excellent and most patients lead a normal life for many years after their surgery. Approximately 20% of the surgical work at BBC Heart care consists of valve surgery.  
  Congenital Heart disease is present since birth and takes the from of holes or other abnormalities in the heart. Some of these babies have a blue discoloration of nails, tongue and lips. The treatment is usually by repair of these defects by open Heart surgery.  
  Sudden or gradual blocks in one of the arteries in the legs or arms can result in pain, discoloration and ultimately gangrene of the affected Limb. Many of these patients stand to benefit from timely bypass of the arteries or removal of arteries clots form the aneurysms can also lead to serious symptoms. These patients require replacement of the dilated segment of the arteries with synthetic tubing's or grafts.  
  Injury to structures of the chest such as the ribs, lungs, Heart or blood vessels can be life threatening. Urgent institution of life support systems, blood transfusion and appropriate surgery can prevent loss of life. At BBC Heart Care centre, We have a well equipped trauma care team including a neuro surgeon where seriously injured patient are routinely managed.  
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